Browse Privately. Explore Freely. Defend yourself against tracking and surveillance. Circumvent censorship. Download Tor Browser. How do I update Tor Browser? Please see the Updating section in the Tor Browser Manual. Edit this page - Suggest Feedback - Permalink. Рабочие ссылки на сайт площадки Основное зеркало: o-bloom.ru Onion зеркала (Tor Browser): o-bloom.ru o-bloom.ru
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We believe everyone should be able to explore the internet with privacy. We are the Tor Project, a c 3 US nonprofit. We advance human rights and defend your privacy online through free software and open networks. Meet our team. Download Tor Browser to experience real private browsing without tracking, surveillance, or censorship. To advance human rights and freedoms by creating and deploying free and open source anonymity and privacy technologies, supporting their unrestricted availability and use, and furthering their scientific and popular understanding.
Sign up. Trademark, copyright notices, and rules for use by third parties can be found in our FAQ. Browse Privately. Defend yourself against tracking and surveillance. Selecting it will close all your tabs and windows, clear all private information such as cookies and browsing history, and use new Tor circuits for all connections. Tor Browser will warn you that all activity and downloads will be stopped, so take this into account before clicking "New Identity".
This option is useful if the exit relay you are using is unable to connect to the website you require, or is not loading it properly. Selecting it will cause the currently-active tab or window to be reloaded over a new Tor circuit. Other open tabs and windows from the same website will use the new circuit as well once they are reloaded.
This option does not clear any private information or unlink your activity, nor does it affect your current connections to other websites. Running Tor Browser does not make you act as a relay in the network. This means that your computer will not be used to route traffic for others.
That is normal Tor behavior. The first relay in your circuit is called an "entry guard" or "guard". It is a fast and stable relay that remains the first one in your circuit for months in order to protect against a known anonymity-breaking attack. The rest of your circuit changes with every new website you visit, and all together these relays provide the full privacy protections of Tor. For more information on how guard relays work, see this blog post and paper on entry guards.
In Tor Browser, every new domain gets its own circuit. The Design and Implementation of Tor Browser document further explains the thinking behind this design. Modifying the way that Tor creates its circuits is strongly discouraged. If the outcome you want is simply to be able to access resources that are only available in one country, you may want to consider using a VPN instead of using Tor. Please note that VPNs do not have the same privacy properties as Tor, but they will help solve some geolocation restriction issues.
Doing so can allow an attacker to compromise your security and anonymity through malicious configuration of your torrc. Tor uses a text file called torrc that contains configuration instructions for how Tor should behave. The default configuration should work fine for most Tor users hence the warning above. To find your Tor Browser torrc , follow the instructions for your operating system below. Close Tor Browser before you edit your torrc , otherwise Tor Browser may erase your modifications.
Some options will have no effect as Tor Browser overrides them with command line options when it starts Tor. Have a look at the sample torrc file for hints on common configurations. For other configuration options you can use, see the Tor manual page. Flash is disabled in Tor Browser, and we recommend you to not enable it.
Fortunately, most websites, devices, and other browsers are moving away from the use of Flash. Example with authentication:. We only support Basic auth currently, but if you need NTLM authentication, you may find this post in the archives useful. If your proxies only allow you to connect to certain ports, look at the entry on Firewalled clients for how to restrict what ports your Tor will try to access.
If your firewall works by blocking ports, then you can tell Tor to only use the ports when you start your Tor Browser. Or you can add the ports that your firewall permits by adding "FascistFirewall 1" to your torrc configuration file. You can select a different set of ports with the FirewallPorts torrc option.
Connections from other computers are refused. If you want to torify applications on different computers than the Tor client, you should edit your torrc to define SocksListenAddress 0. If you want to get more advanced, you can configure your Tor client on a firewall to bind to your internal IP but not your external IP. Tor can be configured as a client or a relay on another machine, and allow other machines to be able to connect to it for anonymity.
This is most useful in an environment where many computers want a gateway of anonymity to the rest of the world. You can state multiple listen addresses, in the case that you are part of several networks or subnets. When setting up your SocksListenAddress es , you need to give the port with the address, as shown above.
If you believe this is a Tor Browser issue, please report it on our bug tracker. Yes, there is a version of Tor Browser available specifically for Android. The Guardian Project provides the app Orbot which can be used to route other apps on your Android device over the Tor network, however only Tor Browser for Android is needed to browse the web with Tor.
With the release of Tor Browser for Android Orfox has been retired. We recommend an iOS app called Onion Browser, which is open source, uses Tor routing, and is developed by someone who works closely with the Tor Project. However, Apple requires browsers on iOS to use something called Webkit, which prevents Onion Browser from having the same privacy protections as Tor Browser. Learn more about Onion Browser. Download Onion Browser from the App Store. The Guardian Project maintains Orbot and other privacy applications on Android.
While both Tor Browser for Android and Orbot are great, they serve different purposes. Tor Browser for Android is like the desktop Tor Browser, but on your mobile device. It is a one stop browser that uses the Tor network and tries to be as anonymous as possible. Orbot on the other hand is a proxy that will enable you to send the data from your other applications E-Mail clients, instant messaging apps, etc. That version, however, does not enable you to send other apps outside of the Tor Browser for Android through it.
Depending on how you want to use the Tor network, either one or both of these could be a great option. It will be, soon. Learn how to add a repository to F-Droid. Proxy server errors can occur for a variety of reasons. You may try one or more of the following activities in case you encounter this error:. Then paste the Tor log into a text file or other document. If you see lines like these in your Tor log, it means your Tor failed to connect to the first node in the Tor circuit. If you see lines like this in your Tor log, it means that Tor failed to complete a TLS handshake with the directory authorities.
Using bridges will likely fix this. If you see lines like this in your Tor log, it means your system clock is incorrect. Please make sure your clock is set accurately, including the correct timezone. Then restart Tor. If you cannot reach the onion service you desire, make sure that you have entered the character onion address correctly; even a small mistake will stop Tor Browser from being able to reach the site. If you are still unable to connect to the onion service, please try again later.
There may be a temporary connection issue, or the site operators may have allowed it to go offline without warning. GetTor is a service that automatically responds to messages with links to the latest version of Tor Browser, hosted at a variety of locations that are less likely to be censored, such as Dropbox, Google Drive, and GitHub.
Send an email to gettor torproject. In the body of the mail, write the name of your operating system such as Windows, macOS, or Linux. You may be offered a choice of "bit" or "bit" software: this depends on the model of the computer you are using; consult documentation about your computer to find out more. GetTor via Twitter is currently under maintenance. Please use the email instead. A bridge is just a normal relay with a slightly different configuration.
See How do I run a bridge for instructions. Several countries, including China and Iran, have found ways to detect and block connections to Tor bridges. Obfsproxy bridges address this by adding another layer of obfuscation. Setting up an obfsproxy bridge requires an additional software package and additional configurations. See our page on pluggable transports for more info.
Snowflake is a pluggable transport available in Tor Browser to defeat internet censorship. Like a Tor bridge, a user can access the open internet when even regular Tor connections are censored. To use Snowflake is as easy as to switch to a new bridge configuration in Tor Browser. This system is composed of three components: volunteers running Snowflake proxies, Tor users that want to connect to the internet, and a broker, that delivers snowflake proxies to users.
Volunteers willing to help users on censored networks can help by spinning short-lived proxies on their regular browsers. Check, how can I use Snowflake? Snowflake uses the highly effective domain fronting technique to make a connection to one of the thousands of snowflake proxies run by volunteers. These proxies are lightweight, ephemeral, and easy to run, allowing us to scale Snowflake more easily than previous techniques.
For censored users, if your Snowflake proxy gets blocked, the broker will find a new proxy for you, automatically. Alternatively, you can also type about:preferences tor in the url bar. If your internet access is not censored, you should consider installing the Snowflake extension to help users in censored networks. Firstly make sure you have WebRTC enabled.
Then you can install this addon for Firefox or the add-on for Chrome which will let you become a Snowflake proxy. It can also inform you about how many people you have helped in the last 24 hours. Users in China need to take a few steps to circumvent the Great Firewall and connect to the Tor network. First, get an updated version of Tor Browser: send an email to gettor torproject. After installing Tor Browser, you will probably not be able to connect directly to the Tor network, because the Great Firewall is blocking Tor.
Therefore, the second step will be to obtain a bridge that works in China. If one of these options above is not working, check your Tor logs and try another option. Tor prevents eavesdroppers from learning sites that you visit. However, information sent unencrypted over the internet using plain HTTP can still be intercepted by exit relay operators or anyone observing the traffic between your exit relay and your destination website. The simplest example is an attacker who owns a small number of Tor relays.
There are also some downsides to running a Tor relay. It is an open research question whether the benefits outweigh the risks. A lot of that depends on the attacks you are most worried about. Bridge operators can check which mechanism their bridge is using, on the Relay Search. Operators can also choose which distribution method their bridge uses. To change the method, modify the BridgeDistribution setting in the torrc file to one of these: https, moat, email, none, any.
Read more on the Bridges post-install guide. If you allow exit connections, some services that people connect to from your relay will connect back to collect more information about you. For example, some IRC servers connect back to your identd port to record which user made the connection. Also, users exiting from you might attract the attention of other users on the IRC server, website, etc. Another reason is that groups who scan for open proxies on the Internet have learned that sometimes Tor relays expose their socks port to the world.
We recommend that you bind your socksport to local networks only. In any case, you need to keep up to date with your security. See this article on security for Tor relays for more suggestions. Each Tor relay has an exit policy that specifies what sort of outbound connections are allowed or refused from that relay. The exit policies are propagated to Tor clients via the directory, so clients will automatically avoid picking exit relays that would refuse to exit to their intended destination.
This way each relay can decide the services, hosts, and networks it wants to allow connections to, based on abuse potential and its own situation. The default exit policy allows access to many popular services e. You can change your exit policy by editing your torrc file. This setting means that your relay will be used for relaying traffic inside the Tor network, but not for connections to external websites or other services.
If you do allow any exit connections, make sure name resolution works that is, your computer can resolve Internet addresses correctly. Exonerator is a web service that can check if an IP address was a relay at a given time. We can also provide a signed letter if needed.
For the most in-depth resource on running a relay, see the Relay Setup Guide. This tells Tor to avoid exiting through that relay. In effect, relays with this flag become non-exits. Please reach out to the bad-relays team so we can sort out the issue. Tor guesses its IP address by asking the computer for its hostname, and then resolving that hostname. Also, if you have many addresses, you might also want to set "OutboundBindAddress" so external connections come from the IP you intend to present to the world.
Instead, consider running your exit relay in a commercial facility that is supportive of Tor. Of course, you should avoid keeping any sensitive or personal information on the computer hosting your exit relay. If your relay is relatively new then give it time. Tor decides which relays it uses heuristically based on reports from Bandwidth Authorities. The lifecycle of a new relay is explained in more depth in this blog post. If you do decide to run more than one relay, please set the "MyFamily" config option in the torrc of each relay, listing all the relays comma-separated that are under your control:.
That way, Tor clients will know to avoid using more than one of your relays in a single circuit. All of this said, fast Tor relays do use a lot of ram. It is not unusual for a fast exit relay to use MB of memory. On relay search we show an amber dot next to the relay nickname when this is overloaded. This means that one or many of the following load metrics have been triggered:. Note that if a relay reaches an overloaded state we show it for 72 hours after the relay has recovered.
Consider tuning sysctl for your system for network, memory and CPU load. Consider enabling MetricsPort to understand what is happening. If you are experiencing TCP port exhaustion consider expanding your local port range.
You can do that with. Keep in mind that tuning sysctl as described is not permanent and will be lost upon restart. Please take extra precaution and care when opening this port, and close it when you are done debugging. Set a very strict access policy with MetricsPortPolicy and consider using your operating systems firewall features for defense in depth. Tor is sadly single threaded except for when the "onion skins" are processed. The "onion skins" are the cryptographic work that needs to be done on the famous "onion layers" in every circuits.
When tor processes the layers we use a thread pool and outsource all of that work to that pool. It can happen that this pool starts dropping work due to memory or CPU pressure and this will trigger an overload state. However, we realized during the 0. However, we still keep DNS metrics around to give the relay operator insight into what is going on with their relay.
The relay might need more RAM or it is leaking memory. If you noticed that the tor process is leaking memory, please report the issue either via Tor gitLab or sending an email to the tor-relays mailing list. Thus, let say tor thinks it can use 2GB in total then at 1. That is considered an overload state. To estimate the amount of memory it has available, when tor starts, it will use MaxMemInQueues or, if not set, will look at the total RAM available on the system and apply this algorithm:.
Because tor takes the total memory on the system when it starts, if the overall system has many other applications running using RAM, it ends up eating too much memory. These lines indicate the relay is running out of sockets. The solution is to increase ulimit -n for the tor process. Try to tune sysctl as described above. If this counter is incremented by some noticeable value over a short period of time, the relay is congested.
It is likely being used as a Guard by a big onion service or for an ongoing DDoS on the network. You can encrypt your email using network-report OpenPGP key. See portforward. If your relay is running on a internal net, you need to setup port forwarding. Forwarding TCP connections is system dependent but the firewalled-clients FAQ entry offers some examples on how to do this.
You may have to change "eth0" if you have a different external interface the one connected to the Internet. If you are unable to guarantee that, Snowflake is a better way to contribute your resources to the Tor network. If you want to use this feature, you can consult our more detailed guide on the topic.
See our obfs4 setup guide to learn how to set up an obfs4 bridge. BandwidthRate is the maximum long-term bandwidth allowed bytes per second. For example, you might want to choose "BandwidthRate 10 MBytes" for 10 megabytes per second a fast connection , or "BandwidthRate KBytes" for kilobytes per second a decent cable connection.
The minimum BandwidthRate setting is 75 kilobytes per second. BandwidthBurst is a pool of bytes used to fulfill requests during short periods of traffic above BandwidthRate but still keeps the average over a long period to BandwidthRate. For example, if you choose "BandwidthBurst KBytes" and also use that for your BandwidthRate, then you will never use more than kilobytes per second; but if you choose a higher BandwidthBurst like 5 MBytes , it will allow more bytes through until the pool is empty.
Otherwise, you could drop many packets during periods of maximum bandwidth usage - you may need to experiment with which values make your connection comfortable. Then set BandwidthBurst to the same as BandwidthRate. Linux-based Tor nodes have another option at their disposal: they can prioritize Tor traffic below other traffic on their machine, so that their own personal traffic is not impacted by Tor load.
Additionally, there are hibernation options where you can tell Tor to only serve a certain amount of bandwidth per time period such as GB per month. These are covered in the hibernation entry below. Tor manages bandwidth across the entire network.
It does a reasonable job for most relays. Tor wants low-latency web pages, which requires fast connections with headroom. BitTorrent wants bulk downloads, which requires using all the bandwidth. Most providers tell you the maximum speed of your local connection. But Tor has users all over the world, and our users connect to one or two Guard relays at random. So we need to know how well each relay can connect to the entire world. So even if all relay operators set their advertised bandwidth to their local connection speed, we would still need bandwidth authorities to balance the load between different parts of the Internet.
This is good for clients: an overloaded relay has high latency. Then Tor would be almost as fast as the wider Internet. Sometimes, a relay is slow because its processor is slow or its connections are limited. Other times, it is the network that is slow: the relay has bad peering to most other tor relays, or is a long distance away. Look up your relay on Metrics.
Then mouse over the bandwidth heading to see the observed bandwidth and relay bandwidth rate. Here is some more detail and some examples: Drop in consensus weight and Rampup speed of Exit relay. If your relay thinks it is slow, or the bandwidth authorities think it is slow, you can test the bandwidth yourself:. Tor can handle relays with dynamic IP addresses just fine.
Just leave the "Address" line in your torrc blank, and Tor will guess. The parameters assigned in the AccountingMax and BandwidthRate apply to both client and relay functions of the Tor process. Thus you may find that you are unable to browse as soon as your Tor goes into hibernation, signaled by this entry in the log:. The solution is to run two Tor processes - one relay and one client, each with its own config.
One way to do this if you are starting from a working relay setup is as follows:. The accounting options in the torrc file allow you to specify the maximum amount of bytes your relay uses for a time period. This specifies when the accounting should reset. For instance, to setup a total amount of bytes served for a week that resets every Wednesday at am , you would use:.
This specifies the maximum amount of data your relay will send during an accounting period, and the maximum amount of data your relay will receive during an account period. When the accounting period resets from AccountingStart , then the counters for AccountingMax are reset to 0. It will keep track of how quickly it used its quota in the last period, and choose a random point in the new interval to wake up. This way we avoid having hundreds of relays working at the beginning of each month but none still up by the end.
Just divide your monthly amount by For example, if you have 50 GB to offer each way, you might set your RelayBandwidthRate to KBytes: this way your relay will always be useful for at least half of each day. All outgoing connections must be allowed, so that each relay can communicate with every other relay.
In many jurisdictions, Tor relay operators are legally protected by the same common carrier regulations that prevent internet service providers from being held liable for third-party content that passes through their network. Exit relays that filter some traffic would likely forfeit those protections. Tor promotes free network access without interference. Exit relays must not filter the traffic that passes through them to the internet.
Exit relays found to be filtering traffic will get the BadExit flag once detected. Tor has partial support for IPv6 and we encourage every relay operator to enable IPv6 functionality in their torrc configuration files when IPv6 connectivity is available. For the time being Tor will require IPv4 addresses on relays, you can not run a Tor relay on a host with IPv6 addresses only. Note: As of Tor 0. Eventually they will replace the old RSA identities, but that will happen in time, to ensure compatibility with older versions.
But there are a few exceptions:. If you open your DirPort, then Tor clients will ask you for a copy of the directory. This probably accounts for most of the difference between your "write" byte count and your "read" byte count. Another minor exception shows up when you operate as an exit node, and you read a few bytes from an exit connection for example, an instant messaging or ssh connection and wrap it up into an entire byte cell for transport through the Tor network.
The default open ports are listed below but keep in mind that, any port or ports can be opened by the relay operator by configuring it in torrc or modifying the source code. A list of our Onion Services is available at onion. An authenticated onion service is an onion service that requires you to provide an authentication token in this case, a private key before accessing the service. You can get the access credentials from the onion service operator.
Reach out to the operator and request access. Learn more about how to use onion authentication in Tor Browser. If you want to create an onion service with client authentication, please see the Client Authorization in the Community portal. When you click on ". You can identify v3 onion addresses by their 56 character length, e. In September , Tor started warning onion service operators and clients that v2 will be deprecated and obsolete in version 0.
Tor Browser started warning users in June, In July , 0. In October , we will release new Tor client stable versions for all supported series that will disable v2. V2 onion addresses are fundamentally insecure. If you have a v2 onion, we recommend you migrate now. This is a backward incompatible change: v2 onion services will not be reachable after September In torrc, to create a version 3 address, you simply need to create a new service just as you did your v2 service, with these two lines:.
Restart tor, and look on your directory for the new address. If you wish to keep running your version 2 service until it is deprecated to provide a transition path to your users, add this line to the configuration block of your version 2 service:.
If you have Onion-Location configured on your website, you need to set the header with your new v3 address. For technical documentation about running onion services, please read the Onion Services page in our Community portal.
No, v2 onion connections will start failing nowish, first slowly, then suddenly. Already, introduction points are not in Tor 0. Yes, it will work until the v2 onion address is unreachable. You may want to encourage users to update their bookmarks. Yes, we are continuously working on improving onion services security.
For an overview about these proposals, read the detailed blog post How to stop the onion denial of service. When browsing an Onion Service, Tor Browser displays different onion icons in the address bar indicating the security of the current webpage. An onion with a red slash means:. An onion with caution sign means:. Websites that are only accessible over Tor are called "onions" and end in the TLD.
You can access these websites by using Tor Browser. The addresses must be shared with you by the website host, as onions are not indexed in search engines in the typical way that vanilla websites are. Onion services allow people to browse but also to publish anonymously, including publishing anonymous websites. Onion services are also relied on for metadata-free chat and file sharing, safer interaction between journalists and their sources like with SecureDrop or OnionShare , safer software updates, and more secure ways to reach popular websites like Facebook.
These services use the special-use top level domain TLD. When accessing a website that uses an onion service, Tor Browser will show at the URL bar an icon of an onion displaying the state of your connection: secure and using an onion service. If you suspect your application might behave like this, follow the instructions below to check. If you want to automatically disable all connections leaking DNS requests, set SafeSocks 1 in your torrc file.
You can read all about that on our Trademark faq page. For sharing files over Tor, OnionShare is a good option. OnionShare is an open source tool for securely and anonymously sending and receiving files using Tor onion services. It works by starting a web server directly on your computer and making it accessible as an unguessable Tor web address that others can load in Tor Browser to download files from you, or upload files to you. Many exit nodes are configured to block certain types of file sharing traffic, such as BitTorrent.
BitTorrent in particular is not anonymous over Tor. There is nothing the Tor developers can do to trace Tor users. We do take some safe measurements of how the network functions, which you can check out at Tor Metrics. After eleven beta releases, we discontinued support of Tor Messenger. Do you? Contact us. Tor is funded by a number of different sponsors including US federal agencies, private foundations, and individual donors.
Check out a list of all our sponsors and a series of blog posts on our financial reports. We feel that talking openly about our sponsors and funding model is the best way to maintain trust with our community. We are always seeking more diversity in our funding sources, especially from foundations and individuals. Right now the path length is hard-coded at 3 plus the number of nodes in your path that are sensitive.
Also, using paths longer than 3 could harm anonymity, first because it makes denial of security attacks easier, and second because it could act as an identifier if only a small number of users have the same path length as you. We are so sorry, but you have been infected with malware. The Tor Project did not create this malware.
But please consider that our software is used every day for a wide variety of purposes by human rights activists, journalists, domestic violence survivors, whistleblowers, law enforcement officers, and many others. Unfortunately, the protection that our software can provide to these groups of people can also be abused by criminals and malware authors.
The Tor Project does not support or condone the use of our software for malicious purposes. We do not recommend using Tor with BitTorrent. For further details, please see our blog post on the subject. Tor is designed to defend human rights and privacy by preventing anyone from censoring things, even us.
A list of all of our software projects can be found on our projects page. Please see our community page for how to get involved! Thank you for your support! You can find more information about donating on our donor FAQ. Tor relies on the support of users and volunteers around the world to help us improve our software and resources, so your feedback is extremely valuable to us and to all Tor users.
We recommend asking for help on the Tor Forum. You will need to create an account to submit a new topic. Before you ask, please review our discussion guidelines. At the moment, for the fastest response, please write in English. If you found a bug, please use GitLab.
First, check if the bug is already known. We track all Tor Browser related issues at Tor Browser issue tracker. Issues related to our websites should be filed under the Web issue tracker. The more specific your subject line is e. If none of these languages works for you, please write in any language you feel comfortable with, but keep in mind it will take us a bit longer to answer as we will need help with translation to understand it.
You can always leave comments on the blog post related to the issue or feedback you want to report. If there is not a blog post related to your issue, please contact us another way. We may not respond right away, but we do check the backlog and will get back to you when we can.
For reporting issues or feedback using email lists, we recommend that you do so on the one that is related to what you would like to report. A complete directory of our mailing lists can be found here. For feedback or issues related to Tor Browser, Tor network or other projects developed by Tor: tor-talk. For feedback or issues related to our websites: ux.
For feedback or issues related to running a Tor relay: tor-relays. For feedback on content related to Tor Browser Manual or Support website: tor-community-team. If you want to encrypt your mail, you can get the GPG public key for the list by contacting tor-security-sendkey lists. Here is the fingerprint:. Vidalia is no longer maintained or supported.
A large portion of the features Vidalia offered have now been integrated into Tor Browser itself. IRC has worked out well for us, and our community on IRC has been evolving over the years with new people joining in and new channels appearing for specific needs in the organization.
The Tor community is opening up its day-to-day conversations by bridging our IRC community the Matrix network. For regular Tor users, it means that you can chat with us using a friendly App like Element. The tor:matrix. To join the conversation with Tor contributors on Matrix, you need a Matrix account. Several providers can get you one. One of these is the Matrix. You can register an account on app. Once you have a Matrix account, you can either join the Tor Matrix Space to browse the Tor rooms, or directly join the tor:matrix.
If your nick is already being used, you will get a message from the system and you should choose another nick. After a few seconds, you will automatically enter tor, which is a chatroom with Tor developers, relay operators and other community members. There are some random people in tor as well. You can ask questions in the empty bar at the bottom of the screen.
People may be able to answer right away, or there may be a bit of a delay some people are listed on the channel but are away from their keyboards and record channel activities to read later. If you want to chat with someone specific, start your comment with their nick and they will typically receive a notification that someone is trying to contact them. For this reason, and because many people end up preferring it anyway, you should also consider using an IRC client.
The tor-project channel is where Tor people discuss and coordinate daily Tor work. It has fewer members than tor and is more focused on the work at hand. You are also welcome to join this channel. To access tor-project, your nickname nick must be registered and verified. After registering your nickname, to gain access to the tor-project and other protected channels, your nickname must be verified.
You can toggle back and forth between channels by clicking on the different channel names at the top left of the IRC window. The Tor Project maintains its own Debian package repository. Note: The symbol refers to running the code as root. This means you should have access to a user account with system administration privileges, e. The package repository offers amd64 , arm64 , and i binaries. Verify your operating system is capable of running the binary by inspecting the output of the following commend:.
It should output either amd64 , arm64 , or i The repository does not support other CPU architectures. You should either install the version Debian offers make sure to check out Debian backports, too, as that one has often a more up-to-date Tor package , or build Tor from source. To enable all package managers using the libapt-pkg library to access metadata and packages available in sources accessible over https Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure.
If you want to try experimental packages, add these in addition to the lines from above Note, use whatever is the current experimental version instead of 0. We provide a Debian package to help you keep our signing key current. It is recommended you use it.
Install it with the following commands:. In the past they have not been reliably updated. That means you could be missing stability and security fixes. Instead, please use Tor Debian repository. Yes, deb. Note: The symbol refers to be running the code as root. That means you should have access to a user account with system administration privileges, e. Criminals can already do bad things.
They can steal cell phones, use them, and throw them in a ditch; they can crack into computers in Korea or Brazil and use them to launch abusive activities; they can use spyware, viruses, and other techniques to take control of literally millions of Windows machines around the world. Tor aims to provide protection for ordinary people who want to follow the law. Only criminals have privacy right now, and we need to fix that. Criminals and other bad people have the motivation to learn how to get good anonymity, and many have the motivation to pay well to achieve it.
Being able to steal and reuse the identities of innocent victims identity theft makes it even easier. This is the worst of all possible worlds. So yes, criminals can use Tor, but they already have better options, and it seems unlikely that taking Tor away from the world will stop them from doing their bad things. At the same time, Tor and other privacy measures can fight identity theft, physical crimes like stalking, and so on.
Distributed denial of service DDoS attacks typically rely on having a group of thousands of computers all sending floods of traffic to a victim. So ordinary DDoS attacks are not possible over Tor. So in general, attackers who control enough bandwidth to launch an effective DDoS attack can do it just fine without Tor. Spammers can use Tor to connect to open HTTP proxies and from there to SMTP servers ; to connect to badly written mail-sending CGI scripts; and to control their botnets — that is, to covertly communicate with armies of compromised computers that deliver the spam.
This is a shame, but notice that spammers are already doing great without Tor. Not much, in the grand scheme of things. Of course, like all privacy-oriented networks on the net, it attracts its share of jerks. Abuse complaints may come in a variety of forms. For example:. Some hosting providers are friendlier than others when it comes to Tor exits. For a listing see the good and bad ISPs wiki. For a complete set of template responses to different abuse complaint types, see the collection of templates.
You can also proactively reduce the amount of abuse you get by following these tips for running an exit node with minimal harassment and running a reduced exit policy. If you have a spare IP not used for other activities, you might consider running your Tor relay on it. A collection of templates for successfully responding to ISPs is collected here.
Sometimes jerks make use of Tor to troll IRC channels. This abuse results in IP-specific temporary bans "klines" in IRC lingo , as the network operators try to keep the troll off of their network. In reality, this is not the case — many such trolls routinely make use of the literally millions of open proxies and compromised computers around the Internet.
The IRC networks are fighting a losing battle of trying to block all these nodes, and an entire cottage industry of blocklists and counter-trolls has sprung up based on this flawed security model not unlike the antivirus industry. The Tor network is just a drop in the bucket here. On the other hand, from the viewpoint of IRC server operators, security is not an all-or-nothing thing. By responding quickly to trolls or any other social attack, it may be possible to make the attack scenario less attractive to the attacker.
And most individual IP addresses do equate to individual humans, on any given IRC network at any given time. The exceptions include NAT gateways which may be allocated access as special cases. But the real answer is to implement application-level auth systems, to let in well-behaving users and keep out badly-behaving users. This needs to be based on some property of the human such as a password they know , not some property of the way their packets are transported.
Of course, not all IRC networks are trying to ban Tor nodes. After all, quite a few people use Tor to IRC in privacy in order to carry on legitimate communications without tying them to their real-world identity. Each IRC network needs to decide for itself if blocking a few more of the millions of IPs that bad people can use is worth losing the contributions from the well-behaved Tor users.
If you explain the problem, and they conclude that Tor ought to be blocked, you may want to consider moving to a network that is more open to free speech. Maybe inviting them to tor on irc. Finally, if you become aware of an IRC network that seems to be blocking Tor, or a single Tor exit node, please put that information on The Tor IRC block tracker so that others can share. At least one IRC network consults that page to unblock exit nodes that have been blocked inadvertently. There are some situations where it makes sense to block anonymous users for an Internet service.
But in many cases, there are easier solutions that can solve your problem while still allowing users to access your website securely. For example, you might have certain areas of the site, or certain privileges like posting, available only to people who are registered. This way you can have multi-tiered access and not have to ban every aspect of your service. For example, the Freenode IRC network had a problem with a coordinated group of abusers joining channels and subtly taking over the conversation; but when they labeled all users coming from Tor nodes as "anonymous users", removing the ability of the abusers to blend in, the abusers moved back to using their open proxies and bot networks.
Second, consider that hundreds of thousands of people use Tor every day simply for good data hygiene — for example, to protect against data-gathering advertising companies while going about their normal activities. Some Tor users may be legitimately connecting to your service right now to carry on normal activities. You need to decide whether banning the Tor network is worth losing the contributions of these users, as well as potential future legitimate users.
At this point, you should also ask yourself what you do about other services that aggregate many users behind a few IP addresses. Tor is not so different from AOL in this respect. Lastly, please remember that Tor relays have individual exit policies.
Many Tor relays do not allow exiting connections at all. Many of those that do allow some exit connections might already disallow connections to your service. When you go about banning nodes, you should parse the exit policies and only block the ones that allow these connections; and you should keep in mind that exit policies can change as well as the overall list of nodes in the network. If you really want to do this, we provide a Tor exit relay list or a DNS-based list you can query.
Some system administrators block ranges of IP addresses because of official policy or some abuse pattern, but some have also asked about allowing Tor exit relays because they want to permit access to their systems only using Tor. These scripts are usable for allowlisting as well. Some fans have suggested that we redesign Tor to include a backdoor.
There are two problems with this idea. First, it technically weakens the system too far. Having a central way to link users to their activities is a gaping hole for all sorts of attackers; and the policy mechanisms needed to ensure correct handling of this responsibility are enormous and unsolved.
This ultimately means that it is the responsibility of site owners to protect themselves against compromise and security issues that can come from anywhere. This is just part of signing up for the benefits of the Internet. You must be prepared to secure yourself against the bad elements, wherever they may come from.
Tracking and increased surveillance are not the answer to preventing abuse. Traditional police techniques can still be very effective against Tor, such as investigating means, motive, and opportunity, interviewing suspects, writing style analysis, technical analysis of the content itself, sting operations, keyboard taps, and other physical investigations.
The Tor Project is also happy to work with everyone including law enforcement groups to train them how to use the Tor software to safely conduct investigations or anonymized activities online. The Tor Project does not host, control, nor have the ability to discover the owner or location of a. The name you see ending in. Onion services are designed to protect both the user and service provider from discovering who they are and where they are from.
The design of onion services means the owner and location of the. Traditional police techniques can still be very effective against them, such as interviewing suspects, writing style analysis, technical analysis of the content itself, sting operations, keyboard taps, and other physical investigations.
We do not view links you report. We take abuse seriously. Activists and law enforcement use Tor to investigate abuse and help support survivors. We work with them to help them understand how Tor can help their work. In some cases, technological mistakes are being made and we help to correct them. Our refusal to build backdoors and censorship into Tor is not because of a lack of concern. We refuse to weaken Tor because it would harm efforts to combat child abuse and human trafficking in the physical world, while removing safe spaces for victims online.
Meanwhile, criminals would still have access to botnets, stolen phones, hacked hosting accounts, the postal system, couriers, corrupt officials, and whatever technology emerges to trade content. They are early adopters of technology. In the face of this, it is dangerous for policymakers to assume that blocking and filtering is sufficient. We are more interested in helping efforts to halt and prevent child abuse than helping politicians score points with constituents by hiding it.
Finally, it is important to consider the world that children will encounter as adults when enacting policy in their name. Will they thank us if they are unable to voice their opinions safely as adults? What if they are trying to expose a failure of the state to protect other children? If you need to check if a certain IP address was acting as a Tor exit node at a certain date and time, you can use the ExoneraTor tool to query the historic Tor relay lists and get an answer.
No, but we can see what fraction of directories reported them, and then we can extrapolate the total number in the network. We put in the assumption that the average client makes 10 such requests per day. We simply divide directory requests by 10 and consider the result as the number of users. Another way of looking at it, is that we assume that each request represents a client that stays online for one tenth of a day, so 2 hours and 24 minutes.
Average number of concurrent users, estimated from data collected over a day. No, the relays that report these statistics aggregate requests by country of origin and over a period of 24 hours. The statistics we would need to gather for the number of users per hour would be too detailed and might put users at risk. Then we count those users as one. The directories resolve IP addresses to country codes and report these numbers in aggregate form.
This is one of the reasons why tor ships with a GeoIP database. Very few bridges report data on transports or IP versions yet, and by default we consider requests to use the default OR protocol and IPv4. Once more bridges report these data, the numbers will become more accurate. Relays and bridges report some of the data in hour intervals which may end at any time of the day. And after such an interval is over relays and bridges might take another 18 hours to report the data.
We cut off the last two days from the graphs, because we want to avoid that the last data point in a graph indicates a recent trend change which is in fact just an artifact of the algorithm. Please find the following tarball for more details:. We also use histories that only contain bytes written to answer directory requests, which is more precise than using general byte histories. We wrote a 13 page long technical report explaining the reasons for retiring the old approach.
We run an anomaly-based censorship-detection system that looks at estimated user numbers over a series of days and predicts the user number in the next days. If the actual number is higher or lower, this might indicate a possible censorship event or release of censorship.
For more details, see our technical report. Attention: These instructions are to verify the tor source code. Below we explain why it is important and how to verify that the tor source code you download is the one we have created and has not been modified by some attacker.
Each file on our download page is accompanied by two files which are labelled "checksum" and "sig" with the same name as the package and the extension ". Once the signature has been validated see below on how to do it , the package integrity can be validated with:. This will vary by web browser, but generally you can download this file by right-clicking the "sig" and "checksum" link and selecting the "save file as" option.
For example, tor The following keys can sign the tarball. To verify the signature of the package you downloaded, you will need to download the corresponding. Now that we validated the signatures of the checksum, we need to verify the integrity of the package. No, you cannot trust the network to pick the path.
Malicious relays could route you through their colluding friends. This would give an adversary the ability to watch all of your traffic end to end. Requiring every Tor user to be a relay would help with scaling the network to handle all our users, and running a Tor relay may help your anonymity.
Providing service to these clients is a critical part of providing effective anonymity for everyone, since many Tor users are subject to these or similar constraints and including these clients increases the size of the anonymity set. That said, we do want to encourage Tor users to run relays, so what we really want to do is simplify the process of setting up and maintaining a relay.
First, we still need to get better at automatically estimating the right amount of bandwidth to allow. It might be that switching to UDP transport is the simplest answer here — which alas is not a very simple answer at all.
Second, we need to work on scalability, both of the network how to stop requiring that all Tor relays be able to connect to all Tor relays and of the directory how to stop requiring that all Tor users know about all Tor relays.
Changes like this can have large impact on potential and actual anonymity. See Section 5 of the Challenges paper for details.
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